Soils are the fundamental unit of agricultural and food production. Intensive cultivation practices affect the physico-chemical properties of soils and, thus, the quality of their organic matter in the short and long term. The main objective of this research is to characterize and evaluate the agricultural land of the northern region of the wilaya of Souk Ahras and the southern region of the wilaya of Guelma (northeast of Algeria), which was based on simple random sampling in the collection of soil samples. The results of the physicochemical characterization of the soils and the assessment of the state of the organic matter of these agricultural soils show that they have a sandy clay texture, a slightly acidic to alkaline chemical character, a variable organic matter rate, low to medium, and a low hygroscopic humidity level. All these things lead to progressive degradation of the quality and fertility of agricultural soils and their organic matter, affecting their yield and sustainable development. To this end, we recommend that farmers avoid intensive agriculture, which in particular has many harmful effects on agricultural land and often monitors and controls the latter without attacking them.