In order to know the diversity and the properties of the soils of the Edough massif (Seraidi) North East of Algeria, we established a plan of prospection and sampling on the basis of a topographic background with superposition of the various plant groups. This study consists in a stratified sampling plan of vegetation, and to inventory the different strata of vegetation, and to describe the soil on which this plant formation develops, because the soil constitutes the living medium and the basis of the ecology and the functioning of the ecosystems. The results obtained show a great richness and diversity of the soils of the Seraidi forest; whose soils are acidic, and the adsorbent complex is desaturated acid, with a rate of organic matter that varies with the contribution of litter, and a significant porosity in all soils of this forest. It appears that there is a close correlation between the vegetation and the soil, as long as the latter is the living environment and the support of the vegetation. This last one plays a determining role in the morphological differentiation, the individualization of the soils, and the orientation of the pedogenetic processes on the surface, whereas the mother rock controls these processes in depth. Therefore, it is necessary to protect this natural diversity to ensure sustainable development.