Policy is not only the outcome of governmental process. Public policy is a political system’s requests arising from the environment, including social, cultural, economic, and value systems. In this regard, policy should be understood as an ongoing process because it involves the decision to enact a law as well as the subsequent implementation, enforcement, and evaluation. Therefore, in order to analyze a policy, it is necessary to view all political and economic factors influencing policy formation and implementation. Education policy is not exceptional. This paper describes policy background of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB) and analysis of NCLB accountability policy in terms of political and economic aspects.